How Search Really Works: "The" Index (1)

by Ruud Hein February 22nd, 2008 

This post is part of an ongoing series: How Search Really Works.
Previous Instalment: The Keyword Density Myth.

If a search engine would search "live" through the documents it knows about for the occurrence of the word we're looking for it could take its time and then simply report where it found our word.

In this example our search engine has only one index: the documents itself.


However, time is something a search engine doesn't have; the query needs to be answered now.

What we need is a real index!

Boolean Index - Talk about the Matrix


The problem with a boolean index, where we put a little flag (1) or not (0) for every word for every document is that it quickly grows way and way too large.

Three documents with amongst them just four words take 12 1's or 0's -- apart from the bits and bytes we need to store the word. Now imagine a matrix where one of the sides is 13,940,000,000 columns wide...

The Inverted Index


In the inverted index we record only the places (documents) where a word does occur.

It's called inverted because instead of the documents providing the occurrences of a word, the word points to which documents it occurs in.

Sorted by document pointer, the inverted index is extremely efficient in performing AND queries.

Let's reshuffle our example a little bit to make this visually clear: intersect-search

If we search for documents that contain the words "search compression" and we down these rows at the same time, as soon as one row makes a jump to a higher document ID, you can jump forward in the other row as well: no use checking the intermediate ones as you now know that those won't have both words.

Knowing only about yes/no occurrences, an inverted index is horrible at phrase and proximity matching:


To be continued...

Ruud Hein

My paid passion at Search Engine People sees me applying my passions and knowledge to a wide array of problems, ones I usually experience as challenges. People who know me know I love coffee.

Ruud Hein

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4 Responses to “How Search Really Works: "The" Index (1)”

  1. Utah SEO Pro says:

    Excellent post on co-occurrence in search. Interested in seeing the follow ups. Information retrieval should be on the "must-know" list for all SEOs but amazing how many don't completely grasp it.

  2. I thought I understood a little about search engines but now I'm confused. Eagerly awaiting part 2.

  3. Geld Lenen says:

    I'm really looking forward to read more of this serie. I could make some people very happy if I referred them here!

  4. […] In the first parts of the series we have been educated¬† in META keywords, keyword links, keyword stuffing, keyword density myth,¬† and now we have "How Search Really Works: "The" Index (1)" […]